Directories of Chemung County, New York
Chemung County NY
Home The Territory Elmira More Directories
WILSON’S
ELMIRA DIRECTORY,
FOR 1857.
A-D E-K L-O P-S T-Z
Business Directory Appendix
You can see this and other Elmira Directories at Steele Memorial Library in Elmira. Thanks to Steele for letting us scan these pages. 
ABBREVIATIONS.

acc’t accountant, al alley, av avenue, AME African Methodist Episcopal, Bap. Baptist, bd boards, bet between, c or cor corner, col’d colored, Cong. Congregational, D R Dutch Reformed, E east, e s east side, h house, la lane, M E Methodist Episcopal, mkr make, N North, n near, n a north side, opp opposite, Presb Presbyterian, P E Protestant Episcopal, P O Post Office, R C Roman Catholic, R P Reformed Protestant, S south, sq square, s s south side, W west, w a west side, W M Wesleyan Methodist


ELMIRA BUSINESS DIRECTORY.


Agricultural Warehouse.

Farrar & Day, 7 Lake

Ambrotypes.

HATHAWAY THOMAS S. 22 Lake (see advertisement)
 
 

Artist.

Sinnett Francis, 48 Water

Auctioneer.

Conant J. E. 4 Lake

Axe & Edge Tool Manufacturers.

Beardsley & Tyler, e s Lake c Cross

Bag Manufacturer.

Tillotson David L. w s Wisner c Church

Bakers.

Landon John H. n s Church 2d h E of Wisner

McLafferty Crandall, w s Lake 2d store N of Carroll

Reed Charles, w s Wisner 4th h S of Third

Roosa David P. 1 Brainard block Water

Banks.

Bank of Chemung, 32 Water

Chemung Canal, n s Water n Lake

Elmira, e s Baldwin c Carrol

Barbers.

Berner John, American hotel

Gilbert Joseph C. 6 Union block Water

Jackon F. (col’d), s s Carroll n post-office

Reynolds & Tann (col’d), s s Carroll 1st h W of Lake

Blacksmiths.

Briggs Isaac P. s s Water n the mill

Door David, w s Fox c Cross

Dyer & Bratt, n s Water c Wisner

Fassett T. & Co. n s Cross bet Lake & Baldwin

Higgins Normal L. s s Carroll 1st h W of Fox

McKee Thomas W. s s Water n R R

Norman John, w s Fox 2d h N of Carroll

Strachen Thomas, e s Baldwin n Clinton

Boarding Houses.

Anderson W. s s Second 2d h E of Wisner

Heindell Francis, h n s Fourth c Dickinson

Murphy C. n s Carroll c Llake

Nickerson Lydia L. n s Water n Wisner

Platt Minerva, n s Water n Wisner

Potter Elizabeth, n s Carroll n Lake

Ward Helen, w s Mill c Fifth

Welch Julia, e s Main n Third

Bookbinders.

FAIRMAN & CO. e s Lake n Water (see advertisement)

Booksellers.

Brown Silas C. 28 Lake

Hall Francis, 30 Water

PRESWICK C. 16 Water (see advertisement)

Boot & Shoe Dealers.

Berhalter Joseph, s s Water n R R

Bigelow William A. 29 Lake

Billings & Walker, 43 Water

Hart Jacob, w s E Union 2d h S of Clinton

Hickman Peter, w s E Union 2d h S of Clinton

JOYCE & EDWARDS, 3 Brainard block Water (see advertisement)

McDonald & Palmer, 15 Water

Robinson Noas H. 28 Water

Stiles Isaac, 17 Lake

Stuart Charles B. 20 Lake

Treadwell Hezekiah D. 25 Water

Trenor John, w s Wisner 6th h N of Second

Bonnet Presser.

Battell F. 31 Water

Bowling Saloon

Wells J. H. n s Carroll n Llake

Brass Founder.

Munson A. s s Water c Main

Brewers.

Rowell F. B. & G. S. s s Cross c the canal

Butchers.

Baker Benoni, n s Water n Wisner

Cortright Joseph, w s Wisner 2d h N of Second

Hitchcock Harmon, 37 Lake

Pattinson George, 21 Water

Pattinson Thomas S. w s Baldwin opp Carroll

Wells I. L. 26 Lake

Cabinetmakers.

HUBBELL S. B. 8 Union block (see advertisement)

Robinson J. M. s s Church c William

SELLEG & WATKINS, 7 Union block (see advertisement)

Vail Benjamin, s s Water 4th h E of Main

Willard B. F. & Co. s s Water 2d h E of Main

Carpenters.

Bartholomew Josiah, s s Water opp Conongue

Bell A. M. s s Water 3d h E of Main

Clark Sylvanus M. n s Church n Wisner

Hibbard Thomas, e s Main n First

Plum Hiram A. s s First n Wisner

Woodruff Albert, s s Water bet Mill & Main

Carriagemakers.

Brune Charles, e s Baldwin n Clinton

Carr Silas T. n s Cross bet Lake & Baldwin

Drake A. J. & Co. s s Water 2d h E of R R

Hill John, n s Cross c William

McKee Thomas W. s s Water 1st h E of R R

Smith William S. w s Fox c Cross

Carriage Trimmer.

Wood A. T. s s Water 2d h E of R R

Chairmaker.

Sweet Wesley, s s Church c William

Clothiers.

BEACH WILLIAM, 22 Lake (see advertisement)

Epstein J. & Brother, 6 Water

Felsenheld & Wachtel, 7 Water

Gladke Jacoon, 27 Water

Randall James B. 2 Union block Water

Skinner Edward L. Holden’s block Water

Tanner William G. 55 Water

Watson Thomas, Dunn’s block s s Water

Werner Charles, 37 Water

Coal Dealers.

Audenried, Langdon & Co. Brainard block w s Baldwin

Baldwin & Post, n s Cross c Wisner

Bement & Konkle, e s Wisner c Gray

Confectioners.

McLafferty Crandall, w s Lake 2d store N of Carroll

Roosa David P. 1 Brainard block Water

Coopers.

NORTH AMERICAN MACHINE & COOPERAGE CO. w s Wisner c Fifth (see

advertisement)

Sigison William, w s Baldwin n Clinton

Wormley John, w s Sly n river

Crockery & Glassware.

ELMORE JOHN N. 50 Water (see advertisement)

WINES, FOWLER & CO. 2 Lake (see advertisement)


Daguerrian Rooms.

HOUSE J. W. 16 Water (see advertisement)

MOULTON WILLIAM J. 20 Water (see advertisement)

Sabin Leander, s s Water opp Brainard house

Dentists.

Eaton Lewis, 51 Water

Hines William A. 18 Water

PEABODY DAVID, 50 Water (see advertisement)

POTTER A. M. Holden’s block Water e Baldwin (see advertisement)

Dressmakers.

Ayres Martha M. s s Carroll n Lake

Botts Adeline, h n s Ann n S Lake

Bouchet Caroline, s s Gray 1st h E of Main

Delany Jane, s s Water c Canal

Josse W. 41 Water

Mowry Mrs. s s Water 1st h E of Lake

Olmsted Phebe, w s William 1st h N of Church

Smith I. S. s s Hudson n R R

Smooke Miss, e s Mill 2d h N of Gray

Soper Ann, 57 Water

Traver Betsey, s s Water opp Chemung Canal Bank

Weyburn L. A. e s Baldwin 2d h N of Cross

Druggists.

Dwyer George, 24 Lake

Elliott Henry W 4 Water

Gibson William L. 18 Lake

Humphrey Clark M. 48 Water

Ogden William, 18 Water

Perry Thomas, 20 Water

Drygoods.

Bulmer David, 10 Water

Carpenter B. B. & Co. 3 Union block Water

Covell R. & E. 8 Water

EDWARDS THOMAS C. w s Lake c Carroll (see advertisement)

Gibson Lyman, 2 Water

Hamlin & Rice, 24 Water

Gibson Lyman, 2 Water

Hamlin & Rice, 24 Water

Hart William E. 12 Water

MARSH A. T. 5 Union block Water (see advertisement)

Noyes & Brown, 34 Water

Dyers.

Smith T. A. s s Second 3d h W of canal bridge

Engravers.

FRASER J. 28 Lake (see advertisement)

ROSE GEORGE P. 13 Lake (see advertisement)

Exchange.

Strang & Gillet, 4 Union block Water

Express Companies.

American (Myron H. Foster, agent), Water

Howard & Co. (Myron H. Foster, agent) Water

New York & Erie R R Co.’s, Ely’s block e s Baldwin

Flour & Feed Stores.

Brown Josiah, 20 Water

Caleb, Bradshaw & Co. 31 Water

Dewitt A. M. w s Baldwin opp Carroll

Elliott William B. 33 Lake

Van Allen & Van Lew, n s Carroll 3d h E of Baldwin

Flour Mills.

Ashdown John, e s Basin n Water

Van Allen & Van Lew, s s Water opp Mill

Furniture Dealers.

HUBBELL S. B. & CO. 8 Union block Water (see advertisement)

Robinson John M. 41 Lake

SELLEG & WATKINS, 7 Union block Water (see advertisement)

Gas Fixtures.

WINES, FOWLER & CO., 2 Lake (see advertisement)

Grain Cleaners.

HORTON & SMITH, s s Carroll 2d h W of Fox (see advertisement)

Grocers.

Assauer Christian, w s E Union c Clinton

Brooks C. B. & Brother, s s Water 3d h W of Fox

Brower John, e s Wisner 1st h S of First

Brown David B. 6 Union block Water

Cherry E., w s Baldwin opp Carroll

Clark & Howes, s s Water 3d h E of Lake

Cuddihy Patrick, 2d h E of Dewitt

Derby Reuben, n s Second c Baldwin

Dwyer George, 24 Lake

Elmore Deville, w s Wisner n Fifth

French & Co. 6 Lake

Gibbons Joseph B. 33 Water

Goldsmith Benjamin, s s Water n Conongue

Holden Fox, 19 Lake

Holden Hiram L. 36 Water

Holmes Ezra F. w s Baldwin opp Carroll

Howell E. Ely’s block e s Baldwin

Lewis Edwin P. 22 Water

Lewis T. & Co 21 Lake

Loring J. H. & Co. 4 Union block Water

McMahon Jeremiah, 35 Lake

Malone Joseph, s s Water 4th h W of Fox

Monks James, n s Fourth c Baldwin

Mott Alphonso R. w s Wisner c Second

Reniff Abisha B. n s Water c Wisner

Rice D. O. n s Church c Wisner

Sheehy John, 5 Lake

Shockey G. W. n s Water c High

Steele S. C. 15 Lake

Stowell A. & Co. w s Wwisner 5th h S of Third

Thompson & Billette, 72 Water

Worrell Lewis, e s William c Lake

Gunsmith.

Dewitt Wiliam P. s s Water opp Chemung Canal Bank

Hairdressers.

(See Barbers.)

Hardware Stores.

Cole Platt, 14 Water

Davis & M’Kindley, 14 & 16 Lake

Watrous R. & Co. 1 & 3 Water

Hat & Cap Stores.

COMSTOCK SAMUEL G. 2 Brainard block Water (see advertisement)

Gardiner & Whiting, 17 Water

Stuart Charles B. 20 Lake

Hides & Leather.

Foster James G. 46 Water

Horse Shoers.

(See Blacksmiths.)

Hotels.

American (W. H. Welsh), w s Wisner c Third

Buckbee Samuel P. w s Baldwin c Cross

Delavan House (E. C. Merrill & Co.) w s Wisner c Clinton

Elmira (G. M. Chapman), 70 Water

Forest House (John C. Redfield), w s Wisner n Third

Haight’s (W. T. Reeder), w s Lake c Cross

Temperance (N. Mann), e s Baldwin c Cross

Waverley House (F. G. Loveland), w s Wisner n Third

House Furnishing Stores.

ELMORE JOHN N. 50 Water (see advertisement)

WINES, FOWLER & CO. 2 Lake (see advertisement)

Insurance Agencies.

American Life (New Haven), Marsh & Swan, agts, 28 Lake

Atlantic (N.Y.), O. W. Palmer, agt, 15 Lake

Atlantic (Providence, R. I.), Marsh & Swan, agts, 28 Lake

Beekman (N. Y.), S Ayres, agt. s s Water c Llake

Charter Oak (Hardford), Marsh & Swan agts, 28 Lake

City Fire (Hartford), Marsh & Swan, agts, 28 Lake

Connecticut Life (Hartford), Marsh & Swan, agts, 28 Lake

Farmers’ Union (Athens Pa), s. Ayres, agt, s s Water c Lake

Fireman’s (N. Y.), S. Ayres, agt, s s Water c Lake

Hampden (Springfield, Mass), Marsh & Swan, agt, 28 Lake

Home (N. Y.), S Ayres, agt, s s Water c Lake

Long Island Fire, O. W. Palmer, agt, 15 Lake

Manhattan Life (N. Y.), Marsh & Swan, agts, 28 Lake

MARSH & SWAN, 28 Lake (see advertisement)

Merchants (N. Y.), S. T. Arnot, agt, n s Water n Lake

New York Life, Marsh & Swan, agts, 28 Lake

North Western, (Oswego), S. Ayres, agt, s s Water c Lake

Norwich (Conn), Marsh & Swan, agts, 28 Llake

People’s (N. Y.), O. W. Palmer, agt, 15 Lake

Phoenix (Hartford), Marsh & Swan, agts, 28 Lake

Star (N. Y.), Marsh & Swan, agts, 28 Lake

United States (N. Y.), Marsh & Swan, agts, 28 Lake

???

Bliven Asa, s s Church c Wisner

Dyer & Bratt, n s Water c Wisner

Phillips William H. & Son, e s Lake n Carroll

Jewelers.

(See Watchmakers.)

Lager Bier.

Ulrich Charles, 19 Water

Wittnam & Voight, s s Water, opp Chemung Canal Bank

Lamp & Chandeliers.

ELMORE JOHN N. 50 Water (see advertisement)

WINES, FOWLER & CO. 2 Lake (see advertisement)

Land Agents.

Galatian Andrew B. Dunn’s block, Water opp Brainard hotel

Judson William R. 7 Lake

Last Maker.

Jones John, w s S Lake on Bridge

Lawyers.

Benn Erastus H. 20 Lake

Brush George A. 61 Water

Carpenter Calvin, 11 Water

Comstock Heman N. 11 Water

Davis George L. 3 Water

Diven Alexander S. 57 Water

Diven, Hathaway & Woods, 57 Water

Fassett Newton P. e s Baldwin over Elmira Bank

Gibbs Levi, 16 Water

Gregg Andrew K. 5 Water

Hart Erastus P. 20 Lake

Hart & Benn, 20 Lake

Hathaway Samuel G. jr., 57 Water

Herron Joseph, Holden’s block Water

King Rufus, 49 Water

Lowman Edward S. 49 Water

Maxwell Thomas , 5 Lake

Murdoch John, 1 Water

North Theodore, 59 Water

Overton D. Y. 16 Water

Patterson William II. e s Lake c Water

Robertson Archibald, e s Baldwin over Elmira Bank

Robertson & Fassett, e s Baldwin over Elmira Bank

Rogers Frederick O. 49 Water

Smith Gabriel L. 15 Lake

Smith Horace B. 1 Water

Smith & Murdoch, 1 Water

Smith & Palmer, 15 Lake

Thurston Ariel S. 15 Lake

Ward J. R. 57 Water

Woods James L. 57 Water

Livery Stables.

Fassett T. & Co. n s Cross bet Lake & Baldwin

Jones Samuel T. s s Carroll n the post office

McGreevy Owen, e s Lake n Cross

Wells, J. H. n s Carroll n Lake

Looking Glass.

ELMORE JOHN N. 50 Water (see advertisement)

WINES, FOWLER & CO. 2 Lake (see advertisement)

Looking Glass & Picture Frames.

SIGLER HORACE V. 388, 390 & 392 Greenwich st. N.Y.

(see advertisement back cover) Lumbar Dealers.

Bennet, Randall & Co. on the canal n of Second

Crane Theodore W. s s Second 1st h E of canal bridge

Halliday William, 4 Union block Water

HARRIS & COOLEY, Gray on the canal

Hatch & Partridge, n s Church 1st door W of canal bridge

JONES RICHARD, n s Church 1st h E of the canal (see advertisement)

Phillips William H. e s Lake n Carroll

Sampson & Ballard, Brainard block w s Baldwin

SELOV ER & HASKELL, n s Fifth c Canal (see advertisement)

VIALL WILLIAM, s s Church 1st h E of canal bridge (see advertisement)

Machinists.

Evans Samuel, w s S Lake on Bridge

Munson A. s s Water c Main

??????

Marble Worker.

Baker Nathan, s s Water opp Chemung Canal Bank

Melodeon Manufacturer.

Shepherd Alexander W. 7 Union Block Water & s s Church c Wisner

Merchants, Forward & Commission.

REYNOLDS I. H. Canal basin r Union block (see advertisement)

Milk Dealer.

McKibben Henry, n s Water n Wisner

Milliners.

Howes Sarah, 41 Water

Humiston Eliza F. n x Carroll 1st h E of Baldwin

McKendrie Matilda, 35 Water

Rice Mary L. n s Carroll 1st h E of Baldwin

Shearman J. 11 Water

Soper Ann, 57 Water

Stocum E. M. 25 Lake

Millinery Goods.

EDWARDS THOMAS C. w s Lake c Carroll (see advertisement)

Mineral Water Maker.

Smith Elbridge, s s Water 5th h E of Main

Music Teachers.

(See teachers of Music.)

Newspapers.

ELMIRA ADVERTISER (daily & weekly), Fairman & Co 6 Lake

ELMIRA GAZETTE (daily & weekly), W. C. Rhodes, 28 Lake

ELMIRA REPUBLICAN (daily & weekly), s s Water c Lake

Temperance Gem (monthly), Jenny Ramsey, 6 Lake

??????????????????

Jones G. M. & H. B. 9 & 11 Lake

Lee William & Co. 26 Water

Painters.

La France P. A. e s Lake c Water

MARSH WASHINGTON, 5 Union block Water (see advertisement)

Wallace Richard K. w s Fox c Cross

Paper Hangings.

PRESWICK C. 16 Water (see advertisement, page 5 front)

Paper Ruler.

FAIRMAN & CO. e s Lake n Water

Physicians.

Boynton Nathan, s s Water 3d h W of Walnut

Chubbuck ________, e s Baldwin 4th h S of Church

Clarke Elias A. e s Main n Gray

Eldridge Edmund, w s S Main n Bridge

Elliott Henry, w s William c E Second

Flood P. H. h n s Water 1st h E of Conongue

Goehrig William, 61 Water

Gray Patrick W. Ely’s block & n s Water bet Main & Mill

Gregg William H. s s Water 1st h W of Chemung Canal Bank

Hart Erastus L. e s Lake 3d h S of E Second

Hart Ira F. s s Church 1st h E of Baldwin

Holbrook George W. n s Church 2d h W of High

Morse Roscius, n s Clinton 3d h W of Mill

Purdy J. w s Baldwin 2d h N of Cross

Reynolds J. A. w s Baldwin c Gray

Sayles Henry, w s Baldwin 3d h N of Cross

Smith Uriah, w s Mill c First

Squire Truman H. n s Church 3d h W of William

Stanchfield John K. w s Baldwin 3d h N of Gray

Tenny D. W. C. 21 Lake & e s William 4th h N of E Second

Towner Daniel A. e s Lake 4th h S of Church

Updegraff J. J. s s S Water n S Lake

Waugh John, s s Second 3d h W of Wisner

Wey William C. n s Water 3d h W of Fox

Pianoforte Dealers.

Eliason, Greener & Co. 51 Water

Sanders William M. Ely’s block e s Baldwin

Planing Mills.

Jeffers William M. & Co. w s Baldwin n Clinton

SELOVER & HASKELL, n s Fifth c Canal (see advertisement)

Plaster Paris Worker.

Nicholas Benedict, s s Water n R R

Printers.

CALHUN ANDREW H. e s Lake c Water

FAIRMAN & CO. 6 Lake

RHODES W. C. 28 Lake

Pump Makers.

Millius & Sackett, s s Water 3d h W of R R

Northrup George E. n s Church 1st h E of canal bridge

Rail Road Agencies.

Lake Shore & Great Western, e s Wisner c Third

Rectifier.

Howes O. w s Fox 2d h S of Carroll

Refreshment Saloons.

Adams William, w s Wisner 5th h N of Second

Bacon Calvin, s s Water n the canal

Bertrope George, s s Second 2d h W of Wisner

Crooker J. R. n s Water n Wisner

Dikeman Barnard, w s Wisner opp depot

Emmons Joseph, w s Wisner 3d h N of Second

Emhoff M. J. e s Lake bet Cross & Carroll

Fairchild Susan, w s Wisner opp depot

Gallagher James, w s Wisner 4th h N of Second

Higgins William C. e s Wisner 3d h S of Second

King William E. w s Wisner opp depot

Luce Ira, s s Water 2d h W of Fox

McNeil Dwight, w s S Lake n Bridge

Malony Joseph, w s Wisner 2d h N of First

Mitchell Nathan, s s Water 4th h E of Lake

O’Meagher James, e s Wisner 2d h S of Second

Richards Henry H. s s Water opp Chemung Canal Bank

Rogers Patrick, w s Wisner 3d h N of First

Rogers Stephen, s s Water opp Fox

Selleck Charles B. w s Wisner 4th h N of Second

Spafford M. B. 74 Water

Thomas Abraham B. s s Second 2d h W of canal bridge

Waibel Joseph, w s Wisner opp depot

Walter O. C. w s Wisner opp depot

Wittnam & Voight, s s Water opp Chemung Canal Bank

Woods Nicholas (col’d), s s Second 1st h W of canal bridge

Saddle & Harness Makers.

Finch Edwin, 39 Lake

Merwin Wakeman, 45 Water

Sash & Blind Manufacturers.

Colman John, agent, e s Wisner n Water

SELOVER & HASKELL, n s Fifth c Canal (see advertisement)

Terry & Stevens, s s Church c William

Saw Manufacturers.

ANDREWS, BURBAGE & CO. w s Wisner n Water (see advertisement)

Schools.

Galatian Francis, n s Second 2d h E of Main

Hoag Jane, w s W Union 2d h N of Fourth

North Elizabeth, s s Water opp Franklin house

Osborn Henry, w s Baldwin c Second

Thurston Clarissa, w s Main c Third

Segar Makers.

(See Tobacconists.)

Silversmiths.

(See Watchmakers.)

Soap & Candle Makers

Kelly, Biggs & Co. n s Fifth on the canal

Pattinson George, n s Ann n river

Spoke Manufacturer.

McNeil Peter S. S. w s S Lake on bridge

Storage.

REYNOLDS ISAAC H. on canal basin r Union block

Stove Stores.

Davis & McKindley, 14 & 16 Lake

Gridley & Davenport, 9 Water

Surveyor.

Benton Henry P. h s s Church 2d h W of Davis

Tailors.

Atkins Christopher C. 19 Water

BEACH WILLIAM, 22 Lake (see advertisement)

Blampied, J. s s Water opp Chemung Canal Bank

Carroll William, w s Lake next Haight’s hotel

Fisher Cordelia, s s Water c Canal

Glenny Henry, 16 Water

Walker George, e s Lake c Water

Tanners.

Bowman Henry, s s Water opp Davis

McDonald & Palmer, n s Ann n bridge

Pagett William & John, s s Water c R R

Taverns.

Brewer L. n s Water c Main

Decker Peter, e s Wisner c Second

Whitaker M. J. s s Third n Wisner

Teachers of Music.

Converse M. M. w s Lake 3d h S of Second

Osborn Hezekiah R. e s William c Third

Telegraph Offices.

New York & Erie R R, T. M. Schnell, depot, Wisner n Clinton

Williamsport & Elmira, J. H. Morford, supt., n s Fifth E of R R

Tinsmiths.

Drake David, s s Water c Canal

Gridley & Davenport, 9 Water

Tabacconists.

Bishop & Hudson, 23 Lake

Nicks John I. 1 Union block, Water

Undertaker.

Robinson John M. 41 Lake

Upholsterers.

HUBBELL S. B. & CO. 8 Union block Water (see advertisement)

SELLEG & WATKINS, 7 Union block Water (see advertisement)

Wagon Makers.

(See Carriage Makers.)

Watchmakers & Jewelers.

Ayres Socrates, s s Water c Lake

ROSE GEORGE P. 13 Lake (see advertisement)

Swartz George W. 39 Water

Yates William P. 51 Water

Whip and Glove Maker.

Clark G. w s Wisner 2d h N of Church

Wine & Liquor Dealers.

Bishop V. R. & Co. n s Carroll 2d h E of Baldwin

Sutton A. 53 Water

Vinton Charles A. & Co. w s Wisner 1st h N of Cross

Woolen Manufacturers.

Elmira Woolen Manufacturing Co. n s Factory st

Yankee Notions.

EDWARD THOMAS C. w s Lake c Carroll (see advertisement)